Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to a different.
It really is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is changed into a power energy.
Kinds of transducer:
The two main types of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Rotary Torque Sensor is really a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most useful examples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used towards the structure, it produces an electric charge and, when an electric powered field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way around. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism could be known as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and therefore are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are employed to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based upon piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the Compression Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while reducing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually used to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very commonly used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not produce a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in electricity and vice versa. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful choice for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when innovative performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Due to their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to give you the controller the correct information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the best amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the better reactive forces it can cause. In case these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system using a counter mass could be integrated and driven having a signal of the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel one another out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is usually utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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